It was recently confirmed by the organiser, and the Sirius Project’s team is now looking forward to participating in the upcoming international conference on magical gems in Budapest early next year. In accordance with the call for papers:
Magical Gems in Context: International Conference
Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts, 16-18 February 2012
Magical gems are amulets carved into precious stones, made mostly in the period of the Roman Empire (2nd-4th centuries AD). They have three special characteristics that distinguish them from other gems and talismans: they contain magical words and spells written in Greek; they sometimes have magical signs (charaktéres) on them; finally, they present unique iconographical schemes, with non-Olympic gods conceived by religious thinkers and magi of Egyptian, Jewish and Near-Eastern tradition. Their makers could freely choose from the elements of these cultures. These talismans were used chiefly to avert diseases and demons or to obtain love and success. Today there are about 4000 pieces preserved in private and public collections worldwide. Their importance is invaluable in order to understand ancient religious beliefs, medicine and magic. Periodically they have been the focus of interest in European culture (as in the 17th century and the beginning of the 20th century), and as today’s raising scholarly interest attests, they are back in the limelight.
The topic to be presented by the Sirius Project deals with a comparison of Graeco-Roman quarry markings/symbols and marks found on contemporary magical gems. Our abstract reads as follows:
The Sirius Project’s Abstract
Using Graeco-Roman amulets and gems as a starting point for comparison and stylistic identification this paper deals with the exoteric and esoteric value (s) of magical signs located in the Egyptian sandstone quarries of Gebel el-Silsila. While individual signs on talismans have been recognized by generations of scholars for their magical connotations, those of Egyptian stone quarries have been dismissed as so called masons’ marks, believed to signify workman groups or individual contractors. A second, now disregarded theory was put forward by early archaeologists such as Georges Legrain, suggesting a linguistic application: “It is by forming a sort of Corpus of the inscriptions that we shall be the better enabled to arrive at the conclusion that these singular characters are probably not simply stone-workers’ marks, but are real characters which have served to transcribe a foreign language that the future may perhaps enable us to understand” (Legrain, G., ‘Inscriptions in the Quarries of el Hosh’, Society of Biblical Archaeology 1906, 25f.).
|Overview of main quarry in Silsila East. ã The Sirius Project|
|Overview of section of quarries in Silsila West. ã The Sirius Project|
Here referred to as ‘symbols’ in accordance with the semiotic terminology, we would like to present a third option based on the comparison with magical amulets, being contemporary with the quarry symbols. We suggest a most similar magical function, as did Sir Arthur Evans when interpreting symbols located on Minoan palaces at Crete. As such, this paper will present a variation of quarry symbols documented personally in situ, individual and in groups, as well as symbols located on temple structure and as graffiti. The images and results presented are included in an ongoing project aiming to catalogue and analyze these symbols for the first time in a comprehensive form. The symbols are studied according to an interdisciplinary approach, combining the concepts of classicism, Egyptology and Art History with an iconographical and semantic analysis of form and appearance and an iconological and hermeneutic analysis of meaning and function. Based on a classification system, which establishes a typology, the aim is to explore the symbols’ fundamental function and cultural position in the society. The aim is also to identify the person or group (the creator) behind the symbols in order to reassess the question of a possible wider continuum of usage. Therefore this paper functions as an introduction to the research project rather than a completed corpus. This paper will include also a brief comparison with the British medieval templar church of Garway indicating a continuation of styles and function into a new historical and religious era, thus including also a wider cultural spectrum of application.
|Quarry symbol (star) at Elephantine Island. ã The Sirius Project|
|Quarry symbol (trident) at Elephantine Island. ã The Sirius Project|
|Quarry symbol (swastika) at Philae. ã The Sirius Project|
|Group of quarry symbols at Nag el Hammam. ã The Sirius Project.|
|Quarry symbol (lotus) at Silsila West ã The Sirius Project.|
|Quarry symbol (lotus) and pilgrims' gouges at Silsila West ã The Sirius Project.|
|Quarry symbols and graffito Sarapis at Silsila West ã The Sirius Project.|